Buying the new car, we do not reflect on the possible term of its service. But thus we understand that except properties of the car, his longevity considerably depends on conditions and the mode of operation, on storage conditions and service.
The role of the owner in longevity of the car is decisive, after all it at a long stage controls these factors, can reduce their negative influence on reliability of work of the main knots, units and components of electric equipment. In the same difficult interaction of conditions (external and internal) the starting battery works. Each new battery has the constructive resource provided with manufacturers by application of various additives in an alloy of lattices and active mass of plates. Properties of separators, quality of electrolyte and strict observance of technology at all fabrication stages of the battery finally form an initial resource. The expense of a resource of the starting battery which is filled in with electrolyte and loaded at plant begins with the conveyor of the producer. Time of delivery of the battery to the buyer works for decrease in its resource, it has to be minimum.
How in the subsequent resources of battery are used?
From the moment of its installation on the car and before full exhaustion of potential opportunities in the mode to start of the engine. The calendar season of operation of the car also to a certain extent influences decision-making on replacement of the battery on new if its resource is settled. And there is it daily and to various intensity. How the resource of basic elements of vehicle batteries at operation of the car decreases? Let’s consider the major factors giving in a result the starter battery to full refusal.
At perfect execution of all constructive elements of the battery the main details of ensuring its digit power are blocks of plates. It they from an external chain (from the charger or the generator of the car) receive a charge and give the saved-up energy in the form of digit current. Charging and digit processes on electrodes (plates) proceed in the presence of electrolyte (solution of sulfuric acid). It impregnates each part of active mass of plates, preparing and supporting process of these reactions. Density of electrolyte decreases at digit process and vice versa – raises at the charging. Change of density of electrolyte is connected with an expenditure of part of sulfuric acid in the course of the category and its education again at charging process. Operation of the battery begins in the condition of a full charged close to full use of active mass of plates. The short category at start-up of the engine is replaced by a charge from the generator with food of a starter. Starters category on duration and depth of the category of the battery depends on technical condition of system of ignition, fuel feeding, air temperature, etc. The working engine provides charge from the generator and the size of charging power and duration of a charge have individual values taking into account the reference temperature of electrolyte (car storage conditions), states for-energy, technical condition of the generator, the regulator of tension and the subsequent period of operation of the car. The charging mode at the movement of the car is influenced also by number of the included regular consumers of the electric power who can change the charging mode in the wide range. At emergence of malfunction of the generator, the charging mode of the battery can be replaced on digit at which degree charge level decreases and can gradually come full refusal. Similar is not characteristic, but in extreme conditions (winter – with cold weather, summer – with high temperature) the number of refusals increases. Variety of the starting modes, and also charging modes, in combination with duration of daily operation of the car within a year, create a certain intensity of wear of electrodes (plates).
At modern car batteries deep (full) categories promote peeling of active weight from veins of lattices of positive (“plus”) plates, and long operation of the battery with a fully charged levels leads less than 60% to an flood level of this weight, it in the form of slime settles on a bottom of cans. Both peeling of active weight, and its flooding in slime reduce the digit power and a resource of batteries. Electrolyte at a charge of such battery has dark color. With high intensity the resources are reduced and at a long recharge (an excess charge when the battery already reached 100% energy level). The recharge is, as a rule, connected with malfunction of the regulator of tension. The “charging” mode passes in “recharging” during the regular long operation of the car within a day into summertime (the taxi mode, the commercial mode, long-distance flights). At such charge there is an intensive decomposition of water of electrolyte in the making gases (hydrogen and oxygen). The atomic oxygen which is allocated at electrolysis with a negative charge turns metal veins of lattices of positive plates into a lead oxide (dioxide), reducing their conductivity and mechanical durability. The increased internal ohmic resistance of blocks of plates reduces tension and power at the starter category, the resource (term of its reliable work) is reduced.
From this it follows that those batteries which in use are exposed to periodically deep (full) categories and a long time work with a charged level of 50-60%, and what test a long recharge – cannot show all constructional reliability and, therefore, cannot have long calendar service life.
Motorists constantly are interested in questions: how many years can reliably work the starter battery at the car and what from offered by producers serves more long? These questions – not simply informative, – they have a certain economic component: the longer battery serves, the less are expenses.
At the same time, not all understand that the starter electrochemical source of current what the battery of any design is, has the corresponding (regime) restrictions on possible conditions of its work. It is possible to refer change of performance data from temperature conditions to them, the mode of a charge and the mode of the category, storage without sub charge in the absence of an assessment of a condition of a energy level, an electrolyte level verification regime in banks, ventilation of the gases emitted from batteries and safety from their possible explosion, frequency of diagnostics.
Theoretically, the resource of starter batteries comes to an end with the termination of conductivity of lattices of positive plates, with transformation of their metal basis into the oxide. But it, so to speak, the naked theory which not always works at practice. Loss of battery resource in actual practice of operation can come and for other reasons (circumstances). It can be and peeling of active weight from veins of lattices and formation of the slime promoting increase in a self-discharge, both a buckling (deformation) of plates and damage of separators by corners of the deformed plates, both stratification of active weight and formation of gaps between it and veins of the lattices creating the increased resistance at the starter category (conducts to deceleration of power of the category in the starting mode).
Operation of batteries with a low energy level (in the summer – less than 50%, and in the winter – less than 70%) creates conditions of an intensive flood of active weight (especially positive plates) in a deposit (slime) which gives to electrolyte at a charge dark color. Cases with the deep cycle batteries in winter time lead to formation of ice in banks which damages not only electrodes (plates), but also the battery case.
Multiple-factor dependence of a condition of a energy bank and working capacity is characteristic only for the battery. Any other component of electric equipment of the car has no such dependence of the working capacity on technical indicators and an operating mode of other systems which drains the battery. Experience and constant attention of the driver to a condition of the battery have sometimes crucial importance for its no-failure and long operation. Position of the starter battery on the car is considerably aggravated with that the condition of its energy bank on a guard of devices has no concrete assessment. Various indicators (on color, tension, current, etc.) are not capable to consider influence of the operating conditions, do not give an assessment of a real state on the basis of which it is necessary to make the relevant decisions on maintenance of necessary operability of the battery. If to provide in use management of a condition of the energy bank taking into account the changing conditions of its work, it will allow to use a constructive resource of each battery most fully. Protection against an excess charge, protection against the excessive (deep) category, protection against high temperature (it is above +50 °C) electrolyte, maintenance in norm of its level over blocks of plates in banks (sections) of the battery, observance of storage conditions at inaction of the car – here the general list of the actions allowing to achieve the greatest service life of starting batteries.
The analysis of indicators of service life of starter batteries of various types allows to note that the calendar duration of their work reflects interaction of three main components of process of operation in motor transport: workers
(operational) indicators of products of electric equipment, service conditions and actions of the driver of the car. Operational technical indicators of separate products of electric equipment with service life of the car can differ from constructive characteristics (wear and other reasons) considerably. The changing environment conditions (summer-winter, day-night) correct the mode of a charge and the category of the battery (without its state) in this or that direction. The operating mode directly depends on the driver. For example, it can turn out that the being available short charge of the battery small current unexpectedly to be replaced by the long category which will not be restored until the end of a trip. The everyday condition of energy bank for a certain period of operation (in the winter or in the summer) characterizes average degree of energy in the battery which value influences the calendar term of its work. Low degree of a charge level is followed by an intensive flood of active weight from plates in slime. There is a stripping of a metal basis of lattices and, as a result, loss of capacity and power of the battery in the starting mode. The excessive and enduring charge (is more often in summertime) promotes intensive decomposition of water from electrolyte in gases (oxygen and hydrogen), one of which will transform a metal (lead) lattice of positive plates to dioxide (a lead oxide). At a stage of end of a resource of the battery the most part of veins of lattices of positive plates in its banks does not keep a metal basis, it decays, increasing in volume. Blocks of plates also increase in volume, face walls of the case are made buldge out outside. The battery is badly charged, at a charge and the category quickly heats up, poorly twists a starter at start-up of the engine, loses working capacity after a total charge for two-three scrollings of the engine (start-up attempt). As during the long operation with a low energy level, and at often repeating deep categories, the most part of active mass of plates passes into other chemical composition (in sulfate). Interaction of sulfate with the metal (lead) veins of lattices made with various additives, not unambiguously.
It is impossible to merge the darkened electrolyte by a battery turning as this action can put it out of action: the slurry deposit at revolution will appear on an internal surface of a cover, and then – and on the top edges of the plates which are not protected by separators. It will lead to short circuit of plates in banks.
After repeated deep categories and the subsequent charges the starter battery can prematurely fail at rather small calendar term of operation though any technological violations at its production cannot be. It is result of the adverse mode of operation. At a controlled operating mode of the car, taking into account external service conditions, technical condition of the generator, the main consumers of the electric power and electrical wiring, at a condition of energy in 70-95% and appropriate maintenance, the battery can smoothly work 3-4 years. Run of the car for this term can make more than 100 thousand km. If the battery in use has constantly lower levels (60% and below) and periodic full categories (before full refusal), in these conditions the term of operation will be much less possible.